Molecular Mechanisms of Dementia - Chapter 3: Neurochemical Aspects of Alzheimer’s Type of Dementia

Elsevier, Molecular Mechanisms of Dementia, April 2019, Pages 73-112
Akhlaq A.Farooqui

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex and progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is accompanied by multiple cellular changes along with loss of synapses. Major cellular changes implicated in the pathogenesis of AD include: (1) oligomerization of β-amyloid (Aβ) and accumulation of senile plaques; (2) hyperphosphorylation of tau and accumulation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles; (3) abnormalities in mitochondrial structure and function; and (4) induction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation due to increase in production of lipid mediators. Aβ-derived diffusible ligands are responsible for damaging mitochondria and synapses in neurons mediating alterations in AD. These processes are responsible for neurodegeneration in AD.