Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex and progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is accompanied by multiple cellular changes along with loss of synapses. Major cellular changes implicated in the pathogenesis of AD include: (1) oligomerization of β-amyloid (Aβ) and accumulation of senile plaques; (2) hyperphosphorylation of tau and accumulation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles; (3) abnormalities in mitochondrial structure and function; and (4) induction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation due to increase in production of lipid mediators. Aβ-derived diffusible ligands are responsible for damaging mitochondria and synapses in neurons mediating alterations in AD. These processes are responsible for neurodegeneration in AD.
Molecular Mechanisms of Dementia, April 2019, Pages 73-112,