Movement Disorders in Childhood (Third Edition) - Chapter 9: Paroxysmal Dyskinesias

Elsevier, Movement Disorders in Childhood (Third Edition) 2022, Pages 165-180
Harvey S. Singer, Jonathan W. Mink, Donald L. Gilbert, and Joseph Jankovic

Paroxysmal dyskinesias represents a group of uncommon movement disorders that are characterized by episodes of abnormal movements arising from a baseline of normal or nearly normal movement. Recent advances in the genetics of these disorders have helped provide some unification of classification schemes and better understanding. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is characterized by spells triggered by sudden movement. Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia episodes are often precipitated by caffeine, ethanol, or sleep deprivation. Paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia episodes are precipitated by sustained exertion. Treatments are largely guided by the phenotype of the disorder.