Since 2019, the entire world has been immobilized by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which caused Covid-19. Different viruses spread infections and can cause frequent pandemics on the planet, so we need to understand and explore this invisible world. Despite the worldwide uproar over the pandemic, it is necessary to argue that other, less contagious but no less dangerous viruses are plaguing humanity. Viruses impact socioeconomic development and cause serious public health problems in the region where the virus has spread, which generally expands and may reach pandemic levels. These characteristics associated with virus spreads cause irreparable disorders for all humanity. Globalization promotes a more intense circulation of people worldwide, and therefore the spread of viruses tends to increase. Traditional treatments through vaccines or drugs may not efficiently control the spread of infectious diseases. So, these treatments have become less and less efficient. Nanoscience can be considered one of the most significant discoveries of humanity in recent times. The nanotechnologies makes it possible to solve humanity’s problems because of the lack of efficient traditional technologies.
From prevention, diagnosis, treatment to vaccine production, this chapter presents an overview based on nanotechnological concepts and applications, focusing on viral infections causing hepatitis and influenza. With advances in studies associated with nanotechnological protocols, it will be possible to use nanotechnologies to combat the spread of these viruses. This chapter discusses the role of nanotechnology in the diagnosis, treatment, and development of vaccines of these viral diseases. Nanotechnology could be a great ally for a new way to fight these viruses and treat these diseases.