Most cases of HIV infection in infants and young children result from perinatal transmission, which can occur in utero, during labor and delivery, or postnatally during breastfeeding. HIV acquired by sexual contact and injectable drug use contributes to the growing number of cases in adolescents and young adults. The early clinical manifestations of HIV infection are varied and sometimes are indistinct, particularly in infants and young children. Early diagnosis is a prerequisite to the timely provision of effective antiretroviral therapy and prevention of HIV transmission from those who are unaware that they are living with HIV. This chapter outlines approaches for diagnosing HIV in infants, children, adolescents, and young adults and provides an overview of the pathologic effects of HIV on various organ systems in these age groups. Infectious complications and management of HIV are discussed in Chapters 112 and 113Chapter 112Chapter 113, respectively.
Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Sixth Edition) 2023, Pages 686-693.e3,