In recent years, new probiotic-related concepts such as postbiotics and paraprobiotics have been coined to indicate that non-viable microorganisms or bacterial-free extracts may provide benefits to the host by offering additional bioactivities to probiotics, including but not limited to anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative and antioxidant activities. Despite in vitro and in vivo studies that support the promising use of postbiotics and paraprobiotics as health promoters, the mechanism of action and the signaling pathway involved have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of novel probiotic-related concepts and the scientific evidence that supports their bioactivities as well as the possible mechanisms underlying their health-promoting effects. Additionally, current trends in food, feed, and pharmaceutical applications are discussed.
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Volume 94, 2020, Pages 1-34,