Recent Advancements in Wastewater Management - Chapter 7: Contamination of soil and food chain through wastewater application

Elsevier, Recent Advancements in Wastewater Management: Implications and Biological Solutions, 2023, pp 109-132
Yadav P., Singh R.P., Gupta R.K., Pradhan T., Raj A., Singh S.K. et al.

Current time, wastewater irrigation is becoming more prominent as a response to the decline in freshwater resources triggered by climate change. Globally, population density and freshwater resources are not distributed equitably. Wastewater irrigation has been identified as a severe environmental concern in many nations due to pesticides, heavy metal, etc. accumulation in food crops and soils, as well as potential health hazards to those who consume these foods. In terms of agricultural use, as well as environmental contamination and toxicological, this approach has both beneficial and negative consequences. However, wastewater is a significant necessary source of plant nutrients, the presence of harmful pollutants and bacteria in wastewater poses a number of environmental, sanitary, and health hazards after long-term agricultural irrigation. As wastewater irrigation becomes more common, human health risks become more important since the advantages to food security and livelihoods must be evaluated against exposure to various contaminants. This chapter discussed the impact of wastewater irrigation on the biological, chemical, and physical attributes of soil including pH, anions and cations, organic matter, and microbial activities. We described how potentially toxic elements (PTEs) accumulate in soil body and how they are transferred to flora and fauna.