Translational Autoimmunity, vol. 3 - Chapter 7: Autoimmunity and HIV infection

Elsevier, Translational Autoimmunity: Autoimmune Disease Associated with Different Clinical Features, Volume , 1 January 2022
Ruperto L.R., Marhuenda A.R., Arenzana C.B., Bernardino J.I.

HIV infection is the most common etiology of secondary immunodeficiency worldwide. The improvement in HIV therapeutics has transformed a devastating condition to a manageable chronic disease. The main health issues in people with HIV in the current era are conditions related to the aging process. In common with other immunodeficiency states, there is an imbalance of the immune system that can favor the development of autoimmune diseases. Like any infectious agent, HIV can trigger autoimmunity by mechanisms such as epitope spreading or bystander activation. However, HIV infection also generates a sustained state of immune activation and early immunosenescence of the immune system. Autoimmunity may be present in every stage of the natural history of HIV infection. This chapter will review the interplay between HIV infection and the immune system, the mechanisms it can generate autoimmunity, and an overview of the primary autoimmune diseases commonly diagnosed in patients with HIV infection.