Water Conservation in the Era of Global Climate Change - Chapter 2: Groundwater extractions and climate change

Elsevier, Water Conservation in the Era of Global Climate Change, 2021, Pages 23-45
Rahul Sharma, Ravi Kumar, Pinki Rani Agrawal, Ittishree, Chankit, and Gaurav Gupta

Ground water, Earth’s largest fresh water resource, ensures both the sustainability of ecohydrological phenomenon as well as adequate domestic, agricultural, and industrial supply globally. However, it is unregulated anthropogenic over extraction is disturbing this delicate equilibrium resulting in to catastrophic effects on fresh water availability and microenvironments, which ultimately causing the climate change. The water extraction and climate change, being inextricably interconnected, have become a serious global concern. The technological limitations like inefficient groundwater monitoring tools restrict the clear understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and the climate which is also reflected in the incompetency of existing groundwater management strategies. In fact, the sustainability of groundwater and climate are among the most difficult conundrum before environmentalists and policymakers. Keeping in view that rapid industrialization, changes in agricultural practices, increasing urbanization, and consequent high population concentration in localized pockets, we are presenting here the current situation of groundwater resources and their global distribution. Further, the interconnections between groundwater over extraction and climate change have been reviewed in the light of recent research. We have critically remarked the major challenges and opportunities concerning groundwater utilization and climate sustainability.