Almost all adolescents between the ages of 12 and 19 own a smartphone and these offer quick access to the internet and social media, which facilitates message transmissions or communication, plus a wide range of amusements such as games, multimedia players, photo albums and electronic books, and essential tools including camera. Owing to the convenience and multiple functions of smartphones, users tend to become overattached and preoccupied with their devices, and excessive or problematic smartphone use is twice as prevalent among teenagers as among adults. Greater consensus among researchers is needed in relation to the development of guidelines relating to the management of problematic smartphone use. Psychosocial treatments remain the dominant approach. A comprehensive management plan should be tailored to the person’s risk factors and needs, taking into account the external support available from parents (family), schools, and may even consider advanced ICT to achieve the best outcomes.
Adolescent Addiction (Second Edition), Epidemiology, Assessment, and Treatment, Practical Resources for the Mental Health Professional, 2020, Pages 215-240,