Culturally tailored therapeutic interventions for people affected by dementia: a systematic review and new conceptual model

Elsevier, The Lancet Healthy Longevity, Volume 2, March 2021
James T., Mukadam N., Sommerlad A., Guerra Ceballos S., Livingston G.

Most people with dementia live in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) and there is an increased dementia prevalence in some minority ethnic groups in high-income countries. However, most interventions are devised for majority populations in high-income countries. We systematically searched 11 electronic databases for culturally tailored interventions for people with dementia and their family carers in LMICs and minority ethnic groups, without limit on language or date. 23 of 22 221 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Interventions adapted peripheral intervention components by, for example, translation and reducing the stigma of psychological therapy by emphasising physical illness and learning. Core therapeutic components were not changed. We found evidence-based, multicomponent interventions adapted for Latinx carers were acceptable, feasible, and effective in the USA and Columbia. Interventions developed for carers in India were effective there but not in other LMICs. Culturally adapted cognitive stimulation therapy was acceptable and effective for people with dementia in sub-Saharan Africa. We propose a new conceptual model from our findings to aid implementation of culturally appropriate treatments for people affected by dementia in LMICs and minority ethnic groups. Evidence-based interventions need cultural adaptation for different settings with therapeutic components retained. If they are acceptable, feasible, and remain effective then full effectiveness trials are unnecessary.