Genetically engineered microorganisms for environmental remediation

Elsevier, Chemosphere, Volume 310, January 2023
Rafeeq H., Afsheen N., Rafique S., Arshad A., Intisar M., Hussain A. et al.

In the recent era, the increasing persistence of hazardous contaminants is badly affecting the globe in many ways. Due to high environmental contamination, almost every second species on earth facing the worst issue in their survival. Advances in newer remediation approaches may help enhance bioremediation's quality, while conventional procedures have failed to remove hazardous compounds from the environment. Chemical and physical waste cleanup approaches have been used in current circumstances; however, these methods are costly and harmful to the environment. Thus, there has been a rise in the use of bioremediation due to an increase in environmental contamination, which led to the development of genetically engineered microbes (GEMs). It is safer and more cost-effective to use engineered microorganisms rather than alternative methods. GEMs are created by introducing a stronger protein into bacteria through biotechnology or genetic engineering to enhance the desired trait. Biodegradation of oil spills, halobenzoates naphthalenes, toluenes, trichloroethylene, octanes, xylenes etc. has been accomplished using GEMs such bacteria, fungus, and algae. Biotechnologically induced microorganisms are more powerful than naturally occurring ones and may degrade contaminants faster because they can quickly adapt to new pollutants they encounter or co-metabolize. Genetic engineering is a worthy process that will benefit the environment and ultimately the health of our people.