Impact of the 2021 CKD-EPI equation on anticancer pharmacotherapy in black and non-black cancer patients

Elsevier, Cancer Letters, Volume 586, 1 April 2024
Butrovich M.A., Qin J., Xue X., Ivy S.P., Nolin T.D., Beumer J.H.

Cancer and kidney disease disproportionately impact Black patients. The CKD-EPI2021 equation was developed to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) without using race. We assessed the impact of using CKD-EPI2021 instead of CKD-EPI2009 or Cockcroft-Gault (CG) on dosing and eligibility of anticancer drugs in Black and non-Black patients. Utilizing the National Cancer Institute Theradex database, deindexed eGFR (mL/min) was calculated for 3931 patients (8.6 % Black) using CKD-EPI2021, CKD-EPI2009, and CG. Dosing simulations based on each eGFR were performed for ten anticancer drugs with kidney function-based eligibility or dosing cutoffs. eGFR differences using CKD-EPI2021 versus CKD-EPI2009 varied between Black and non-Black patients (p < 0.001); on average, Black patients had 10.3 mL/min lower eGFR and non-Black patients had 4.2 mL/min higher eGFR using CKD-EPI2021. This corresponded to a difference in relative odds of cisplatin ineligibility using CKD-EPI2021 versus CKD-EPI2009; Black patients had 48 % higher odds of ineligibility and non-Black patients had 27 % lower odds of ineligibility using CKD-EPI2021 (p < 0.001). When using CKD-EPI2021 versus CG, eGFR differences were similar between Black and non-Black patients (p = 0.679) and relative difference in odds of cisplatin ineligibility did not vary. Using CKD-EPI2021 versus CKD-EPI2009 differentially impacts Black versus non-Black cancer patients; Black patients have lower calculated eGFR and are less likely to receive full doses of drug using CKD-EPI2021. From the historical default of CG, adopting CKD-EPI2021 would not disparately impact patients based on race, but would result in Black patients being less likely to receive full doses of drug than if CKD-EPI2009 were used.