Environment International, Volume 134, January 2020,
Mercury contamination in soil, water and air is associated with potential toxicity to humans and ecosystems. Industrial activities such as coal combustion have led to increased mercury (Hg) concentrations in different environmental media. This review critically evaluates recent developments in technological approaches for the remediation of Hg contaminated soil, water and air, with a focus on emerging materials and innovative technologies. Extensive research on various nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nanosheets and magnetic nanocomposites, for mercury removal are investigated. This paper also examines other emerging materials and their characteristics, including graphene, biochar, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), covalent organic frameworks (COFs), layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as well as other materials such as clay minerals and manganese oxides. Based on approaches including adsorption/desorption, oxidation/reduction and stabilization/containment, the performances of innovative technologies with the aid of these materials were examined. In addition, technologies involving organisms, such as phytoremediation, algae-based mercury removal, microbial reduction and constructed wetlands, were also reviewed, and the role of organisms, especially microorganisms, in these techniques are illustrated.
Adsorption; Adsorption/desorption; Air Pollution; Alga; Algae; Bioremediation; Biotechnology; Carbon; Carbon Nanotube; Carbon Nanotubes; Chemical Procedures; Coal Combustion; Constructed Wetland; Covalent Organic Framework; Covalent Organic Frameworks; Desorption; Ecosystem; Ecosystem Restoration; Elemental Mercury; Graphene; Heavy Metal Removal; Hg(II); Human; Humans; Hydroxide; Innovation; Layered Double Hydroxide Derivative; Layered Double Hydroxides; Magnetic Nanocomposites; Magnetic Nanoparticle; Manganese Oxide; Mercury; Mercury (element); Mercury Compounds; Metal Organic Framework; Metal-Organic Frameworks; Metalorganic Frameworks (MOFs); Methyl Mercury; Methylmercury; Mineral; Nanocomposite; Nanomaterial; Nanosheet; Nanotubes, Carbon; Nonhuman; Novel Materials; Organic Compound; Organic Minerals; Organometallics; Oxidation; Phytoremediation; Priority Journal; Reduction (chemistry); Remediation Techniques; Review; Soil; Soil Management; Soil Pollutant; Soil Pollutants; Soil Pollution; Soil Pollution Control; Soil Remediation; Soils; Unclassified Drug; Water; Water Contamination; Water Management; Wetlands; Global