International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Volume , 2021,
Perceived discrimination, intergroup contact and acceptance are often encountered during acculturation processes. Based on large-scale survey data collected in the Netherlands among Antillean-Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch, Surinamese-Dutch, and Turkish-Dutch immigrant groups, relations were tested between acculturation antecedents (perceived discrimination, intergroup contact, and perceived acceptance), mediating conditions (cultural maintenance and cultural adoption), and acculturation outcomes (psychological and sociocultural outcomes). Confirmatory factor analyses pointed to adequate psychometric qualities for all concepts in the total group and to invariance in the four Dutch immigrant groups. Structural equation modeling revealed a very good fit for our model in the total group and the four immigrant groups. The acculturation model captured similar experiences, notwithstanding the different cultural backgrounds of the four groups. Experiencing discrimination had a direct negative effect on sociocultural and psychological outcomes such as well-being, and indirectly via cultural adoption. The frequency of immigrants’ contacts with various groups positively affected adopting the new culture and maintaining their own. This implies both attitudes are needed, that is, appreciating their background culture while also having a positive attitude toward Dutch society and more confidence in sociocultural skills. Surinamese-Dutch appeared to best fit the described acculturation process. However, there were also some differential effects. For example, for the Turkish-Dutch group, experiencing more discrimination did not result in a more negative attitude toward Dutch society. In addition, for Antillean-Dutch the frequency of contact with various cultures had no direct effect on mediating conditions. Further research should uncover general acculturation mechanisms without neglecting singular patterns within the various immigrant groups.