Clinics in Chest Medicine, Volume 42, March 2021,
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) occurs in women more than men whereas survival in men is worse than in women. In recent years, much research has been carried out to understand these sex differences in PAH. This article discusses clinical and preclinical studies that have investigated the influences of sex, serotonin, obesity, estrogen, estrogen synthesis, and estrogen metabolism on bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II signaling, the pulmonary circulation and right ventricle in both heritable and idiopathic pulmonary hypertension.
16 Hydroxyestrogen; Adipose Tissue; Aromatase; BMPR2; Biosynthesis; Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2; Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II; Complication; Estrogen; Estrogen Metabolism; Estrogens; Experimental Animal; Female; Gene Mutation; Genetics; Heart Right Ventricle Function; Heart Ventricle; Heart Ventricles; Human; Humans; Hypertension, Pulmonary; Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry; Lung Circulation; Male; Metabolism; Methylation; Nonhuman; Obesity; Pathophysiology; Penetrance; Physiology; Postmenopause; Priority Journal; Prognosis; Pulmonary Circulation; Pulmonary Hypertension; Review; Right Ventricle; Serotonin; Sex; Sex Characteristics; Sex Difference; Sex Hormone; Sexual Characteristics; Signal Transduction; Steroid Hydroxylation; Steroid Metabolism; Steroidogenesis; Survival; Unclassified Drug; Global