In recent decades, pollution of marine ecosystems has gained much attention. Ocean transport of oil, the extraction and processing of offshore hydrocarbon deposits, and manufacturing in refineries near coastal regions, as well as other anthropogenic activities, pose a number of hazards that can lead to water pollution. Marine (navigation) accidents involving oil tankers or spills from offshore drilling platforms have caused disasters accompanied by huge contamination, with grave repercussions. Aquatic ecosystems in or near polluted areas have endured profound damage and disturbances over many years. Protecting Europe’s common aquatic and marine ecosystems and assets from contamination, overfishing, and structural changes will require synchronized action at the EU level.
Bacterial Fish Diseases, 2022, pp 1-29,