Application of predictive coding in developmental disorders. We characterize auditory aspects in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the phonological aspects of dyslexia. Reviewed are changes in auditory ERPs, from ABRs to cortical evoked potentials and brain rhythms, with an added emphasis on MMN and P300 as they feature in predictive coding. We illustrate differences between low- and high-functioning ASD and age dependence of ERP findings in ASD, ADHD, and dyslexia. Effects of language impairment are presented. Discussed is the role of ERPs in diagnosing between ASD and ADHD. We evaluate whether predictive coding adds to diagnostic criteria and present the role of the thalamus in the use of predictive coding in dyslexia.
Brain Responses to Auditory Mismatch and Novelty Detection Predictive Coding from Cocktail Parties to Auditory-Related Disorders 2023, Pages 221-269,