Chapter 1: Transport and health; an introduction

Elsevier, Advances in Transportation and Health, Tools, Technologies, Policies, and Developments, 2020, Pages 3-32
Nieuwenhuijsen M.J., Khreis H.

Transport is an essential component of economic activity and is often envisioned as a driver for urban development and a key contributor to economic returns. Transport also has direct (negative and potentially positive) impacts on the health of a population. Transport provides many jobs, which is normally good for the income of people and their health. However, there are also many negative health impacts of transport, particularly motorized transport in cities such as motor vehicle crashes, high air pollution and noise levels, heat island effects, and lack of green space and physical activity. It is now well recognized that there is a relationship between land use, transport, and health, and to change transport and health, one has to change land use. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the topic and make some suggestions on how to reduce the negative health impacts. Land use changes, a move from private motorized transport toward public and active transportation and change in policy assessment, are all needed to make transport healthier.