Chapter 21 - Management of wastewater and other environmental issues using smart nanomaterials

Elsevier, Advances in Smart Nanomaterials and their Applications, Volume , 1 January 2023
Raja M.A., Ahmad M.A., Daniyal M., Husen A.

The massive amount of wastewater generation from different sources and its treatment is one of the global challenges that humanity encounters these days. This article presents the various sources of wastewater generation, treatment, and application of nanomaterials. Detailed consideration is given to the wastewater primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment processes. The disposal of by-products of wastewater pollutes the soil; hence, its disposal should be strictly monitored using sensing devices. A smart way of treating wastewater using nanotechnology is discussed and the application of various carbon-based nanomaterials is listed. Since carbon-based nanomaterials are abundant in nature in the different allotropic forms and also lead to the development of clean, and sustainable treatment. The use of carbon nanotubes is found to be an effective adsorbent to retreat wastewater. Graphene-based nanomaterials are discovered to be efficient nanomaterials for wastewater cleanup because of their excellent mechanical strength. The oxidized and reduced state of graphene is discussed with the corresponding advantages. Among the graphite-based nanomaterials, one of the nanomaterials is graphitic carbon nitride, the properties, cost, and usability of which are studied. Additionally, the applicability of carbon-based nanomaterials is also reviewed.