Chapter 5 - Role of nanomaterials in environmental remediation

Elsevier, Adsorption through Advanced Nanoscale Materials: Applications in Environmental Remediation, Volume , 1 January 2023
Kumari M.

Industrialization led by population growth has increased the presence of various organic and inorganic contaminants in our environment, causing potential risks to human and environment. Consequently, the search and application of novel technologies for alleviating the challenge of environmental pollution are urgent. Inadequacy of conventional methods and materials used in water remediation in eradicating organic, inorganic, and microbial contaminants has encouraged the research community to pursue nanotechnological aids for environmental needs. Nanotechnology is an emerging science that could be used in different fields. Nanomaterials have major benefits over bulk materials due to their larger surface area, greater reactivity, and therefore improved performance. Nanoremediation is an effective, rapid, and efficient technology to deal with persistent compounds such as pesticides, chlorinated solvents, halogenated chemicals, or heavy metals. Furthermore, nanoremediation is a sustainable alternative to eliminate emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutics or personal care products. In this chapter, we discuss the role of nanostructured materials and outline the present need for nanomaterials in environmental applications and environmental remediation. Nanomaterials enriched with tunable surface functionalities, excellent structural stability, high adsorption capacities, improved selectivity and specificity, enhanced biodegradability, and reusability of synthesized materials have been tried for environmental pollution mitigation. The environmental fate and toxicity of nanomaterials need to be considered for their use in abatement and remediation of environmental pollution. The success of the techniques in field conditions is a factor of interdisciplinary works, which need successful collaboration of chemistry, material science, and geology and biosciences.