This chapter describes the concepts of risk and uncertainty and vulnerability and resilience as these apply to transportation systems. Requirements for decision-making are introduced, along with the available tools for decision-making, with details on the latter provided in subsequent chapters. The distinction between mitigation and adaptation is reinforced, as a requirement for understanding the issues related to risk management – in this case dealing with a situation that exists or is evolving, rather than looking for an alternative condition. A range of adaptation frameworks is described, including those provided by Federal Highways Administration (FHWA) and the International Road Federation (PIARC), as these provide good case study applications in the real world. The management of risk and uncertainty in the planning and management of transportation systems is a major feature of the chapter, with an overview of the costs of extreme weather and related events. Climate stressors and their effects on infrastructure are described, leading to an examination of how climatic factors can be represented in performance assessment.
Climate Change Adaptation for Transportation Systems, 2021, Pages 65-103,