Elsevier, Reference Module in Food Science, Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability, Volume 1, 2019, Pages 128-134
This article reviews food operations in wars and conflicts, which are likely to continue as the primary cause of humanitarian need worldwide. It first discusses information systems used to assess need and capacity, determine situational severity, and inform program and policy choices. The article then presents three modalities used in food operations – in-kind food distribution, cash, and vouchers – and considerations for modality choice, targeting criteria, and conditionality. It also discusses unique challenges to food operations in protracted crises, or those lasting more than five years. The article concludes by examining local and international actors, and funders and funding mechanisms.