Fishing comprises a major activity that has played an invaluable role in the relationship between humans and animals. Aquatic animals have been captured for multiple purposes, such as for food provision, medicinal use, or leisure activities, thus supporting several economies worldwide. Fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, and other animals are captured through vastly different scales, from subsistence artisanal fishing methods to high-technology industrial fishery fleets. Nowadays, overfishing has raised concerns about the depletion and/or collapse of several stocks. This chapter focuses on the importance of fisheries and its role in human development, considering historical aspects, the main uses of targeted taxa, and their capture methods, which include the use of animals. We shed light on the consequent social and conservation concerns about human impact on fish populations, emphasizing the importance of considering the knowledge and data provided by fishers in that context.
Ethnozoology, Animals in Our Lives, 2018, Pages 119-149,