A History of Vaccines and their Opponents: Chapter 19 - Safety and sexual promiscuity: hepatitis B, human papilloma virus, and influenza vaccines

Elsevier,  A History of Vaccines and their Opponents, 2023, Pages 281-292
Ian R. Tizard

Two modern vaccines that have elicited significant opposition are those directed against hepatitis B and human papilloma viruses. In the case of hepatitis B, unfounded claims suggest that it can cause the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis. These claims have resulted in multiple lawsuits. In the case of human papilloma virus, that causes a sexually transmitted disease, much of the opposition has centered on the suggestion that it will promote sexual promiscuity in young children. Other claims also exaggerate its adverse effects, the lack of severity of the diseases that it causes (cervical and other cancers) mistrust of the government and its manufacturer and needle phobia. Much of this opposition is promoted by disinformation reported on the internet.