This chapter describes the structure of water and the importance of hydrogen bonds to its physical and chemical properties. Water's high pointing point and surface tension result from extensive hydrogen bonding between molecules. The polar nature of water molecules determines the solubility of other substances, or lack thereof. Acid-base chemistry, pH, and their relevance to food are discussed. Chemical leavening, for example, employs acid-base chemistry to produce bread doughs that rise without yeast. The water content of food affects its texture and rate of spoilage. The concept of water activity and its importance to controlling spoilage, is described.
Introduction to the Chemistry of Food, 2021, pp 1-36,