Stream fishes consume an enormous range of food resources, enabling diverse communities of species to coexist and playing important roles in food webs and ecosystem dynamics. In this chapter, we outline the use of behavioral observations, gut content and fecal analyses, morphological measurements, and stable isotopes for drawing inferences about the trophic ecology of stream fishes. These methods allow insights at the level of individuals, populations, communities, and entire food webs. Using multiple methods in concert provides a rich perspective on how dietary differences among fish species affect stream ecology.
Methods in Stream Ecology: Third Edition, Volume 1, 20 February 2017,