Developmental disabilities affect approximately one in six children in the United States. Identification of a specific cause for delayed development in a child is important and may provide insight into prognosis, recurrence risk, therapies, counseling, and linkage with a supportive group. However, even if a specific diagnosis cannot be made, early identification of developmental delay can lead to a program of early intervention or remediation that may improve the child's ultimate functioning. This chapter reviews common risk and protective factors for developmental disorders, approaches to screening, and identification of developmental disabilities in primary health care settings. Comprehensive evaluation and judicious use of laboratory and imaging technologies are reviewed, and strategies are provided to aid in differential diagnosis. Common specific developmental disorders are described, and treatment options, including complementary and alternative therapies, and issues related to parent counseling are discussed.
Nelson Pediatric Symptom-Based Diagnosis: Common Diseases and their Mimics (Second Edition) 2023, Pages 450-472.e2,