Oncogenic Viruses: Volume 1: Fundamentals of Oncoviruses: Chapter 2 - Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis B virus and environmental factors

Elsevier, Oncogenic Viruses, Volume 1: Fundamentals of Oncoviruses, 2023, Pages 5-27
Hanaâ Bazir, Hlima Bessi, Mohammed Nabil Benchekroun, Moulay Mustapha Ennaji

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for between 85% and 90% of primary liver cancers. It has several interesting epidemiological characteristics. Differences in distribution have been noted between geographic regions and ethnic groups but also according to sex and the presence of several risk factors linked to the environment. A variety of risk factors for HCC have been reported, including hepatitis B and C viruses, aflatoxin B1, alcohol consumption, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and hemochromatosis. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a ubiquitous virus with worldwide distribution. Hepatitis B is one of the most common and serious infectious diseases in the world. HBV infection causes more than one million deaths each year. It is estimated that more than one-third of the world’s population has been infected with HBV. About 5% of the population are chronic carriers of HBV, and nearly 25% of all carriers develop serious diseases of the liver, such as chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and HCC. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex and multifactorial process that involves both genetic and environmental factors leading to malignant transformation. HBV is among the most important etiological factors in HCC. In this chapter we will discuss the association between HCC and HBV and the synergy between this viral factor and other environmental factors.