The small island state of Singapore provides a good demonstration of how sustainable development of the marine environment is possible under high urban pressure. Coastal development took precedence over marine biodiversity preservation prior to 2000 and conservation was largely ignored. However, a shift in management priority and policy after 2000 became evident with the formation of a specific agency to handle marine conservation and with Singapore's adoption of an integrated coastal management framework. Impacts from coastal development were minimized with the implementation of mitigating measures identified from impact assessment studies. The formation of Singapore's first marine park in 2014 signified the priority now accorded to marine conservation. Enabling circumstances that contributed to and supported the policy transformation included efforts of civil society and academe. Synergy of all these factors resulted in the implementation of unique and innovative initiatives to protect and enhance marine biodiversity despite intense coastal development.
Loke Ming Chou, Chapter 10 - Sustaining marine biodiversity in Singapore's heavily urbanized coast, Editor(s): David Ting, Paul O'Brien, Progress in Sustainable Development, Elsevier, 2023, Pages 265-282, ISBN 9780323992077,