With diminishing water resources, especially in arid and semiarid regions of the world, there is a growing effort to find new sources of freshwater. This chapter explores the technological landscape of water purification in India. The different kinds of treatment methods used for the purification of water depend not only on the source of water, but also on the intended use of the treated water. This chapter focuses on the purification of water meant for drinking in India. While there are a plethora of technologies available for the purification of water meant for drinking (which includes water used for cooking), the primary technologies used at the household level are the UV and reverse osmosis systems. It should be noted that the water supplied by Indian municipal agencies to households for the purpose of drinking is already treated. These agencies apply primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of treatment to purify water at the treatment plants, rendering water drinkable after treatment. Still, the problems of leaks led to the adoption of purification systems at the household level. This chapter also discusses the treatment of wastewater and its use in agriculture and aquaculture.
Water Conservation and Wastewater Treatment in BRICS Nations, 2020, Pages 139-168,