Toilets for education: Evidence from Kenya's primary school-level data

Elsevier, International Journal of Educational Development, Volume 70, October 2019
Kim H., Rhee D.-E.
This study empirically examines the effects of school toilet provision on the primary-school attendance rate in Kenya. Using over 4200 school-level observations between 2013 and 2015, the results consistently show that an increase in the school toilet availability per student significantly raises the primary school attendance rate among both boys and girls. Moreover, the effects are larger for girls than for boys, and especially for pubescent girls. The results suggest that the provision of school toilets is critical to reduce the gender education gap in developing countries, as well as to improve overall school attendance.