In aquatic toxicology, it is now well-established that the chemical characterization of pollutants exposure is not sufficient and that multidisciplinary approaches coupling chemistry and biology have to be developed to allow linking of the presence of contaminants and their putative toxic impacts. Along with the improvement of molecular biology methods, the development of "omics" technologies is booming worldwide since the early 1990s when these techniques have begun to emerge. During the past 20. years, these techniques have been in turn described as a unique research opportunity to decrypt all the biological mechanisms. In this chapter, the major genomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and fluxomic approaches developed in aquatic ecotoxicology are described and illustrated by studies on fish and mollusks from the recent literature. The advantages and main limitations of these techniques will be discussed. Finally, some important points to be taken into account in future prospects will be discussed.
Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks, Volume , July 13, 2015,