Flooding is one of the costliest natural disasters both economically and in terms of human lives. The destructive capabilities of flooding have the potential to destabilize entire nations due to the large-scale economic damage inflicted as well as the death and displacement of a large population. Modern flood warning systems (FWSs) have been developed and evolved to serve various needs of different communities, regions, or nations, especially those that are prone to flooding. Because the needs for FWSs differ significantly in terms of scopes, sizes, and complexities, they also differ significantly in terms of capabilities and advantages. To help readers have a broader and deeper understanding of different FWSs, this chapter provides a general overview of FWSs, including gauge networks, radar and satellite precipitation measurements, hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, and data-driven (DD) methods with detailed introductions for each type of FWSs (monitoring, radar-based, and DD). The authors believe that a continued investment in FWSs as sustainable urban development practices and a global adoption of such practices will minimize flood damages to the greatest extent.
Climate Change and Extreme Events, 2021, pp 83-103,