Control Theory in Biomedical Engineering: Chapter 8 - Wearable mechatronic devices for upper-limb amputees

Elsevier, Control Theory in Biomedical Engineering Applications in Physiology and Medical Robotics 2020, Pages 205-234
Juan J Huaroto, Etsel Suarez, Emir Z. Vela

Wearable devices (WDs) have evolved from purely mechanical devices to intelligent mechatronic systems thanks to the continuous advance of technology integrating sensors, actuators, novel materials, computation, and above all sensory feedback. This chapter presents the state of the art of wearable devices for upper-limb amputees. First, we define and classify what a wearable device is. Then we discuss prosthetic devices for upper-limb amputees. We describe the different types of prostheses according to their source of power, and then we present myoelectric prostheses, which are the most widely used WDs commanded by electromyography (EMG) signals. In addition, we introduce human sensory feedback for prosthetic WDs, which is attracting more attention from the scientific community to improve communication between users and their prostheses. Finally, we examine some challenges to overcome in order to progress further in the continuous development of WDs for upper-limb amputees.