Water is a finite natural resource that is essential for our survival. Over the years the reserves of freshwater are running low and some regions in the world are faced with severe water stress. Climate change has impacted the pattern and amount of precipitation and the water shortage has escalated with rapid population growth and urbanization. As a result, we and the natural environment are confronted with a serious water shortage. Sustainable water management is a strategy for maintaining future water resources that include increasing water supply and managing the way we use freshwater to sustain economic growth for current and future generations. This article aims to discuss the state-of-the-art of managing water supply and demand as a natural resources and what indicators are being developed to identify water scarcity worldwide. The article reviews the technologies that have been developed to implement sustainable water management at the community scale, demonstrated with case studies.
Elsevier, Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies, 2017, Pages 91-103