The distribution of vascular disease worldwide has evolved dramatically over time, driven primarily by demographic changes and changing rates of atherosclerotic risk factors. In the United States in particular, the proportion of racial/ethnic groups represented in the overall population is increasing. As such, caring for vascular patients now, more than ever, requires focused efforts to understand the impact of race and ethnicity on the epidemiology of vascular disease, delivery of vascular care, and patient outcomes. Recent advancements highlight several important disparity themes that persist across vascular pathologies, including abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease. Black and Hispanic patients generally present with more severe manifestations of vascular disease, are less likely to undergo intervention, and experience higher morbidity and mortality compared with White patients. Understanding the reasons for these disparities is critical to developing strategies by which to improve care among an increasingly diverse patient population.
Vascular Disease in Women, An Overview of the Literature and Treatment Recommendations, 2021, Pages 307-338,