Relevance of nano- and microplastics for freshwater ecosystems: A critical review

Elsevier, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 110, January 2019, Pages 375-392.
RitaTriebskorn, Thomas Braunbeck, Tamara Grummt, Lisa Hanslik, Sven Huppertsberg, Martin Jekel, Thomas Knepper, Stefanie Krais, Yanina Müller, Marco Pittroff, Aki Ruhl, Hannah Schmieg, Christoph Schüri, Claudia Strobel, Martin Wagner, Nicole Zumbülte and Heinz Köhlera

The current paper critically reviews the state-of-the-science on (1) microplastics (MP) types and particle concentrations in freshwater ecosystems, (2) MP and nanoplastics (NP) uptake and tissue translocation, (3) MP/NP-induced effects in freshwater organisms, and (4) capabilities of MP/NP to modulate the toxicity of environmental chemicals. The reviewed literature as well as new data on MP and NP concentrations in the river Elbe and on particle uptake into human cells indicate an environmental relevance of small particles in the low nano- and micrometer range higher than that of larger MP.