International Review of Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volume 55 - Chapter 4: A Review of Diagnosis and Service Disparities Among Children with Autism from Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups in the United States

Elsevier, International Review of Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volume 55, 2018, Pages 145-180
Amber M. Angell, Allison Empey, Katharine E. Zuckerman

As rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the United States have continued to rise, there is evidence of racial and ethnic disparities in ASD prevalence and services access. Compared to White children, children from racial and ethnic minority groups are less likely to be diagnosed with ASD and more likely to be mis-diagnosed or diagnosed later; and once diagnosed, they receive fewer ASD services. In this article, we review current knowledge about ASD disparities, including the complex and multifaceted causes. We highlight areas where further research is needed. Finally, we review promising practices to address ASD disparities, arguing that efforts to reduce disparities are needed at multiple levels such as parent education, widespread adoption of screening in healthcare and community settings, and effective interventions developed for community and school settings.