Health and population

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related death in Africa, yet its epidemiology is not well described throughout African countries. This study reports the clinical characteristics and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in African countries. As a part of SDG 3, this study also describes the state of hepatocellular carcinoma management across African countries, which could inform health policymaking for reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases.
Worldwide, the majority of women who die from breast or cervical cancer live in low-income and middle-income countries. Although proven and cost-effective interventions are available, incidence and related mortality from these cancers in some low-resource settings are increasing. In this first paper of the Lancet Series on health, equity, and women’s cancers, authors outline the consequences of these global inequities in cancer survival for women. The Series seeks to provide an advocacy and action framework for radically improving progress toward closing this global cancer divide.
This Article extends the theory of so-called “neighbourhood effects” to explain the health of people living in slums; authors note that although densely populated neighbourhoods can promote the spread of disease, they can also amplify the benefits of interventions because beneficial effects are shared across many people. This neighbourhood effect is likely to offer increasing returns to investments to create a healthy environment and should be capitalised on to achieve SDG 3. The paper identifies how slums should be included in censuses to identify local priorities for action.
China’s successful health efforts have resulted in achieving the Millennium Development Goal 4 – to reduce under-5 mortality rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. This article examines the trends in the under-5 mortality rates, and the specific causes of mortality within regions of China. Policy addressing the SDG 3.2 goal of reducing child mortality, should focus on addressing the disparities between regions, as well as the prevention of the greatest causes of child mortality.
This article addresses the health needs of slum residents, who are at an increased risk of developing mental health problems, non-communicable diseases, malnutrition, infectious diseases, and injuries due to violence. Children are especially vulnerable, as malnutrition can lead to stunted growth and impaired cognitive development. Slum health is under-represented in the scientific literature, despite an estimated doubling of slum populations by 2030, from today’s figure of 1 billion. Addressing the health-care needs of people living in slums will be vital to achieving SDG 3 and is related to SDG 1.
In 2014, the authors of this Comment published a call to action in The Lancet to eliminate violence against women, a goal that has since been included in global policy under the SDG 5 of increasing women’s empowerment and gender equality. Here, the same authors ask what progress has since been made, highlighting the WHO’s Global Plan of Action to strengthen health systems’ response to interpersonal violence. Increased political engagement will be necessary to sustain encouraging trends of decreasing violence and to achieve the SDG 5 target during an era when women’s rights remain at risk.

The Psychology of Gender and Health: Conceptual and Applied Global Concerns, 2017, Pages 199-229

Violence against women is a growing area of study in development because it is directly related to the health and psychological consequences associated with victims. Contributing to SDGs 3 and 5, this chapter provides a summary of the main strategies that have been proposed to combat this problem by different international and European organizations, with particular attention to the specific application that has been carried out in Spain.

The Psychology of Criminal and Antisocial Behavior: Victim and Offender Perspectives, 2017, Pages 343-359

Contributing to SDGs 3 and 5, this chapter discusses the importance that those dealing with domestic violence are well trained to recognise the warning signs, behaviors, and circumstances that are associated with domestic violence and its various incarnations, as well as the psychological, social, and physical consequences of this form of victimization.

Explaining Suicide: Patterns, Motivations, and What Notes Reveal, 2017, Pages 51-71

Contributing to SDGs 3 and 5, this chapter examines interpersonal relationships as a motivation for suicide.

Physical Activity and the Aging Brain, Effects of Exercise on Neurological Function, 2017, Pages 141-150

This chapter addresses goal 3 by examining the role that exercise and physical activity play on Alzheimer’s Disease.