Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater and Human Health: Chapter 11 - Acquired knowledge and identified gaps in resistance and human health risk

Elsevier, Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater and Human Health 2023, Pages 241-254
Kumud Nigam, Somali Sanyal

Antimicrobials compounds are useful tools that help humans, animals, and plants to fight against diseases. They include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, and antiprotozoal compounds. However, over time, certain groups of microbes change itself in such a way that antimicrobial compound cannot kill them, termed as resistance. In this way, when bacteria become resistant, the original antibiotic can no longer kill them. Unjustified use of antibiotics is one of the reasons to develop resistance against the drug. Antibiotics are becoming increasingly ineffective as drug, as a result resistance spreading globally and leading to more death. In view of the above reason, World antimicrobial awareness week (yearly on date November 18–24) changes their slogan from “Antibiotics: Handle with Care” to “Antimicrobials: Handle with Care” in 2020 reflecting the growing concern of increased drug resistance cases. The present chapter gives an insight on drug resistance, how to overcome the issue, hazards on the human health, and future protocols to follow.