This Article supports Sustainable Development Goal 3 by identifying an independent relationship between anxiety and subsequent cognitive progression in older people without dementia; these findings suggest that treating anxiety and targeting mitochondrial dysfunction may be effective in preventing dementia.
Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in preventing HIV infection, MSM and TGW who exchange sex can have high PrEP uptake, persistence and adherence, and low HIV incidence when offered in supportive community-based settings.
This Article supports SDG 3 by highlighting the effectiveness of a new, multilevel service delivery model, including interventions at patient, provider, and clinic levels, that improves the virological outcomes of adolescents and young adults living with HIV, generalisable to the current treatment context in rural sub-Saharan Africa.
This Article supports SDG 3 by examining cost-effectiveness of implementing the HITSystem, a web-based intervention designed to improve outcomes of infants exposed to HIV, in Kenya. The study finds that HITSystem is among the most cost-effective early infant diagnosis interventions reported to date; the the cost per infant exposed to HIV was US$31·38 and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for life-years saved was $82·72.
This Article supports SDG 3 by focusing on pregnant and postpartum women with HIV and assessing the risk factors for adverse postpartum outcomes and examining which factors can be addressed to support breastfeeding in resource-rich settings.
This Article supports SDG 3 by showing that short-course tuberculosis preventive treatment is likely to be cost-effective (compared with no tuberculosis preventive treatment) for adult contacts in 15 countries and people living with HIV/AIDS in seven countries, even under conservative cost-effectiveness thresholds.
This Article supports SDG 3 by showing that men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa remain highly vulnerable to HIV acquisition and HIV-related mortality and morbidity, undermining the Global AIDS Strategy to end AIDS; realising the UNAIDS 95-95-95 targets and reducing disparities in HIV incidence requires urgent efforts to strengthen community-led prevention efforts.

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Volume 123, August 2023

Using brain tissue from donors with Alzheimer's disease, Anderson et al. identify new links between gene regulation and disease. These regulators could represent future clinical targets or disease markers for Alzheimer's diagnosis and treatment.
Choropleth map displaying HIV Prevalence spread across Nigeria.
Population-based surveys are expensive and time consuming. By determining state-level seropositivity using national testing service data and a Bayesian linear model, a map of HIV prevalence was generated across the whole of Nigeria. By identifying the areas in which HIV is most prevalent interventions can be targeted. This less resource intense Bayseian method allows for national monitoring of HIV prevalence.

Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 204, 1 August 2023

In vivo triple transgenic AD mouse model brains and retinas showed hypoxic vessels expressing hypoxyprobe and HIF-1α. In in vitro OGD-treated endothelial cells, HIF-1α upregulated NADPH oxidase (NOX) (i.e., Nox2, Nox4). NLRP1 protein was promoted by OGD, and such effect was blocked by downregulation of Nox4 and HIF-1α. Hypoxic endothelial cells of AD brains and retinas markedly expressed NLRP1, ASC, caspase-1, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Chronic hypoxia in microvascular endothelial cells leads to HIF-1α-NLRP1 circuit in AD.