Smart Grid

Smart grids, which utilize digital technology for better electricity delivery and use, align strongly with several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). They are directly linked to SDG 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy), as they increase energy efficiency, reduce energy waste, and support the integration of renewable energy sources. By improving reliability and resilience of electricity supply, smart grids can also enhance industry performance and innovation, contributing to SDG 9 (Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure). Additionally, smart grids can enable more equitable access to energy, addressing SDG 10 (Reduced Inequalities). They also have an indirect effect on SDG 13 (Climate Action) as they facilitate the shift towards low-carbon energy systems, and can improve urban living conditions, in alignment with SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities).

The concept of “Smart City” has been proposed by governments, the business community, advocacy groups, and research institutions as a means to solve common urban problems and improve the quality of life for citizens. Although a Smart City has the potential to change our cities for the better, it also may unintentionally reinforce existing inequalities. In particular, without appropriate strategies that support inclusion, persons with disabilities and seniors may experience social and digital exclusion in communities.

This chapter addresses goal 7 by presenting an overview of the principles and techniques of distributed generation (DG) units.

Energy and Buildings, Volume 116, 15 March 2016

The smart grid's components

The smart grids are modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability. The role of buildings in this framework is very crucial. This paper addresses critical issues on smart grid technologies and the integration of buildings in this new power grid framework.

Capacity planners in developing countries frequently use screening curves and other system-independent metrics such as levelized cost of energy to guide investment decisions. This can lead to spurious conclusions about intermittent power sources such as solar and wind whose value may depend strongly on the characteristics of the system in which they are installed, including the overall generation mix and consumption patterns.

This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems.