Background: Empirical, updated country-level estimates on the proportion of cirrhosis attributable to viral hepatitis are required.

eBioMedicine, Volume 82, August 2022

This Article supports SDG 3 by assessing the presence of microplastics in human liver tissue and identifying six different microplastic polymers in the liver of individuals with liver cirrhosis.
 schematic overview of the model-fitting process
Background: Indices of ventilation heterogeneity (VH) from multiple breath washout (MBW) have been shown to correlate well with VH indices derived from hyperpolarised gas ventilation MRI. Here we report the prediction of ventilation distributions from MBW data using a mathematical model, and the comparison of these predictions with imaging data. Methods: We developed computer simulations of the ventilation distribution in the lungs to model MBW measurement with 3 parameters: σV, determining the extent of VH; V0, the lung volume; and VD, the dead-space volume. These were inferred for each individual from supine MBW data recorded from 25 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) using approximate Bayesian computation. The fitted models were used to predict the distribution of gas imaged by 3He ventilation MRI measurements collected from the same visit. Results: The MRI indices measured (I1/3, the fraction of pixels below one-third of the mean intensity and ICV, the coefficient of variation of pixel intensity) correlated strongly with those predicted by the MBW model fits (r=0.93,0.88 respectively). There was also good agreement between predicted and measured MRI indices (mean bias ± limits of agreement: I1/3:−0.003±0.118 and ICV:−0.004±0.298). Fitted model parameters were robust to truncation of MBW data. Conclusion: We have shown that the ventilation distribution in the lung can be inferred from an MBW signal, and verified this using ventilation MRI. The Bayesian method employed extracts this information with fewer breath cycles than required for LCI, reducing acquisition time required, and gives uncertainty bounds, which are important for clinical decision making.
This Article supports SDGs 3 and 13 by showing that plant-based beef alternatives could reduce the carbon footprint of the US food system, but highlights that reductions in other envirnmental dimensions are dependent on repurposing of resources.

Radiology Case Reports, Volume 17, August 2022

Schilder's disease is a rare form of multiple sclerosis. It concerns mostly teenagers and young adults. The Clinical signs and symptoms might be atypical for early multiple sclerosis which often mimics intracranial neoplasm or abscess.
This article assesses the effects of mental health on post-surgical outcomes of carpal tunnel release.
This Article supports SDG 3 by describing the barriers to multidisciplinary care for patients with breast cancer in Latin America, and suggesting that active involvement from all stakeholders is required to build solutions.
This Article supports SDG 3 by assessing the impact of the private outsourcing of NHS services in England, finding that rates of treatable mortality increased as outsourcing increased.
The objective of this paper was to upport the development of an integrated water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and nutrition, social, and behavior change strategy aimed at reducing stunting, formative research was conducted in 2 program sites in western Kenya.
Addressing poverty as a core aim of the intervention approach galvanized strong multisectoral buy-in across these projects, as poverty is a common challenge among the populations targeted by all rural institutions. Regular information sharing through workshops and other meetings provided opportunities for cross-sector interactions which resulted in mutual learning and an appreciation for multisectoral engagement.