Recycling of Batteries and Electronics

Elsevier, 22nd June 2020

High-tech products like batteries and electronics contain a variety of valuable, scarce, and in some cases potentially harmful materials, but in only a few exceptional cases (such as lead-acid batteries) is the material being recovered efficiently. Cotributing to SDGs 7, 9 and 12, this special issue seeks to elucidate the technical and institutional difficulties inherent in recycling these products and provide a forum for sharing potential ways to overcome them. 

Elsevier,

Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 25, 2020, e00152, ISSN 2214-9937

Contributing to SDGs 7, 9 and 12, this study shows that cathode-healing™ restores structure and functionality to well-used lithium cobalt oxide. The paper follows recycling activities from the collection of battery packs, through to extraction of electrolyte with carbon dioxide, industrial shredding, electrode harvesting, froth flotation, cathode-healing™ and finally, building new cells with recycled cathode and anode. The final products demonstrated useful capability in the first full cells made from direct recycled cathodes and anodes from an industrial source.
Elsevier,

Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 23, 2020, e00134, ISSN 2214-9937

Hazardous waste generated from the disposal of Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is driving research into a sustainable approach for treatment and recovery. The positive electrode active materials are the main targeted component, being the greatest contributor to LIBs cost. This paper studies the particle size characteristics of milled spent LIBs, and also the interaction of copper and aluminum impurities based on size, contributing to SDGs 7, 9 and 12.
Elsevier,

Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 23, 2020, e00120, ISSN 2214-9937

Contributing to SDGs 7, 9 and 12, this critical literature review surveys the existing environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on grid-scale stationary lithium-ion battery energy storage systems, and highlights research gaps concerning comprehensive environmental impacts. Several recommendations for future stationary storage LCA studies are proposed.
Elsevier,

Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 22, 2019, e00121, ISSN 2214-9937

This paper focuses on the integration of a pregnant leach solution (PLS) - derived from a NiMH recycling stream - into a nickel production plant. Although toxic Cd is not present in NiMH batteries, it ends up in the battery waste stream, preventing direct integration of the waste into the primary process. This study removed Zn, Fe, Al, Mn and Cd ions from the PLS using a two-step solvent extraction process, so that the Ni and Co remaining in solution could be integrated into the nickel production process, addressing SDGs 7, 9 and 12.
Elsevier,

Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 22, 2019, e00113, ISSN 2214-9937

Cathode-healing™ is a direct recycling method that restores structure and functionality to well-used lithium-ion cathodes. The study shows restoration of two EV-relevant chemistries: NCM 523 and NCM 622. Full cells composed of recycled material demonstrate lifetime capability on par with baseline material. The technical feasibility and low-cost of cathode-healing™ enables sustainability in the electric vehicle and energy storage industries, addressing SDGs 7, 9 and 12.
Elsevier,

Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 21, 2019, e00101, ISSN 2214-9937

Waste multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), containing BaTiO3, Ag, Pd, Ni, and Sn etc., and are a valuable secondary resource. The existing recycling process has great challenges when considering the environmentally friendly and efficient separation and recovery of resources. Contributing to SDGs 7, 9 and 12, this study demonstrates a simple and sustainable process to convert MLCCs into high value-added and efficient photocatalysts, which promises significant benefits for waste utilisation and environmental protection.
Elsevier,

Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 22, 2019, e00110, ISSN 2214-9937,

Contributing to SDGs 7, 9 and 12, this paper explores the possibility for safe discharge of cells using different salt solutions. Corrosion of the cell terminals was limited with bicarbonate and hydrogen phosphate salts. These salts shows a marked improvement in safety when compared to sodium chloride brine discharge, where the cells are compromised within minutes.
Elsevier,

Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 19, 2019, e00087, ISSN 2214-9937

The increased demand for Lithium ion batteries (LIB) has highlighted potential problems in the supply chain of raw materials needed for their manufacture. This paper reviews the current state of the LIB supply chain, addresses issues associated with end-of-life, and sheds light on the importance of recycling from the environmental and value chain perspectives, addressing SDGs 7, 9 and 12.
Elsevier,

Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 17, 2018, e00062, ISSN 2214-9937

In this study, froth flotation experiments were carried out with a variety of new and spent lithium-ion batteries using kerosene as the collector. The results show that the froth flotation method works well in separating anode and cathode materials, and therefore could be integrated with the direct recycling method to close the loop of materials used in Li-ion batteries. This addresses SDGs 7, 9 and 12.
Elsevier,

Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 17, 2018, e00068, ISSN 2214-9937

There is a need to develop technology to enable a resource-efficient and economically feasible recycling system for lithium-ion batteries and thus assure the future supply of the component materials. Contributing to SDGs 7, 9 and 12, this article suggests research areas that could enable the development of improved recycling methods, with separation technologies identified as the most promising.