The cost of the health SGDs
How much will it cost to reach the health-related SDGs in low-income and middle-income countries? This model-based projection analysis funded by the World Health Organization estimates that an extra $274 billion spending on health is needed per year by 2030 to make progress towards the SDG 3 targets—the equivalent of $58 per person. If actually spent, 97 million lives could be saved and life expectancy increased by 3·1–8·4 years.
Alcohol use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disability and premature mortality. Structured psychological treatments are recommended as first-line interventions for harmful drinking; however, poor access to primary care services limits their accessibility. This trial conducted in India provides proof of principle that strategies for behavioural change can be delivered effectively by non-specialist health workers in a primary-care setting. Such a strategy could help to close the large and rising global treatment gap for alcohol use disorders and directly contributes to SDG 3 target 5.
Soil-transmitted helminth infection is the most common parasitic human disease, affecting an estimated 1·45 billion individuals worldwide. School-age children are at especially high risk of morbidity from infection and as a result, deworming campaigns are often targeted to this age group. This study is the first to synthesise existing research reporting the effect of either targeted or mass distribution of deworming programmes, and suggests that expanding campaigns community-wide in endemic areas could reduce the incidence of these infections in school-age children.
Depression accounts for the largest burden of mental illness worldwide, with a global prevalence of 4·7% and an associated cost of US$1·15 trillion. Although psychological treatments are recommended as first-line interventions, most depressed people living in poor countries lack access to such treatments. This trial done in India is the first study to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of psychological treatment for depression in a lower middle-income country, showing acceptability, feasibility, and cost-effectiveness when delivered by lay health-workers and advancing knowledge on SDG 3.

Lancet Psychiatry Vol 4 No 1 January 2017

This Comment by Anita Riecher-Rössler explores the connections between goals 5 and goals 3: depression in women; the role of the sex hormones oestradiol and progesterone in anxiety, trauma-related, and stress-related disorders; schizophrenic psychoses in women; and violence against women, and its effects on mental health.
The International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) and Childhood Cancer International (CCI) held a symposium at the 48th SIOP Congress in Dublin, Ireland, on Oct 19, 2016, entitled “Essential medicines for children with cancer: dynamics and challenges”. This joint position statement summarises the symposium's key consensus findings to galvanise the international oncology community to achieve sustained improvements in access to medicines for children with cancer, regardless of disease or geography supporting tagerts 3.2 and 3.4.

The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 4 No 1 January 2017

In this Comment, Louise Howard and colleagues review the mental health literature and report that many researchers are not considering or reporting the role of sex and gender within their studies. This “gender neutral” approach, they argue, is in fact gender biased, as it undermines scientific validity and efficiency, and means gender-sensitive treatments and services cannot be designed or delivered. The authors call for greater awareness of this issue by funders and journals, and gender parity in mental health research populations.
This research aims to distinguishing hypothetical willingness from behavioural intentions to initiate HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Findings from this study contribute directly to SDG 3 (good health and well-being) and SDG 10 (reduced inequalities).
The Blueprint for Business Leadership on the SDGs aims to inspire all business — regardless of size, sector or geography — to take leading action in support of the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It illustrates how the five leadership qualities of Ambition, Collaboration, Accountability, Consistency, and Intentional can be applied to a business' strategy, business model, products, supply chain, partnerships, and operations to raise the bar and create impact at scale. The Blueprint is a tool for any business that is ready to advance its principled approach to SDG action to become a leader. This chapter relates specifically to SDG 3.
Kidney diseases (KDs), both acute and chronic, are recognized as major public health issues worldwide and important contributors to the rising burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). More than half of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) do not receive any treatment, especially in the low and low middle income countries (LMICs). Similarly, acute kidney injury (AKI) contributes to about 1.7 million preventable deaths every year worldwide. There is a critical requirement for the development of an implementation framework tailored to the local needs of health systems and to optimize the quality of care for patients at risk for developing KD in limited-resource settings. SDG 3.4 specifically addresses reduction of premature mortality from NCDs.