Climate Change

Climate change, a global phenomenon characterized by alterations in weather patterns, rising global temperatures, and an increase in extreme weather events, poses a significant challenge to sustainable development and directly impacts the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs, a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed as a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all" by 2030, are intrinsically connected to climate action.

Central to this relationship is SDG 13: Climate Action, which calls for urgent measures to combat climate change and its impacts. This goal acknowledges that without immediate and sustained action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the achievement of other SDGs is at risk. Climate change exacerbates existing challenges such as poverty (SDG 1), hunger (SDG 2), and health issues (SDG 3) by disrupting livelihoods, food security, and health conditions. For instance, increased temperatures and changing precipitation patterns affect crop yields, leading to food insecurity. Similarly, the spread of diseases is influenced by climatic conditions, directly impacting public health.

Furthermore, climate change has a disproportionate impact on vulnerable populations, including those living in poverty, exacerbating inequalities (SDG 10). It affects access to clean water (SDG 6) and sanitation, with changing weather patterns disrupting water supply. The degradation of natural habitats and ecosystems under climate stress threatens life below water (SDG 14) and life on land (SDG 15), leading to biodiversity loss and affecting the livelihoods of those dependent on these ecosystems.

The economic impacts of climate change are also profound, affecting sustainable industrialization (SDG 9) and undermining economic growth (SDG 8). Severe weather events cause extensive damage to infrastructure and lead to economic losses, while changes in climatic conditions can impact industries such as agriculture, fishing, and tourism.

Moreover, climate change poses challenges to achieving sustainable cities and communities (SDG 11) as urban areas face increased risks of flooding, heatwaves, and air pollution. This necessitates the development of resilient infrastructure and adaptive urban planning. Additionally, the energy sector, integral to most economic activities, must transition towards clean and renewable sources (SDG 7) to mitigate climate change, highlighting the interdependence of the SDGs.

Global partnerships (SDG 17) are crucial in addressing climate change, as it is a global issue requiring international cooperation and funding. Developed countries are urged to support developing nations in climate mitigation and adaptation efforts, recognizing the shared responsibility and differing capacities among nations.

Food production on our planet is dominantly based on agricultural practices developed during stable Holocene climatic conditions. Although it is widely accepted that climate change perturbs these conditions, no systematic understanding exists on where and how the major risks for entering unprecedented conditions may occur. Here, we address this gap by introducing the concept of safe climatic space (SCS), which incorporates the decisive climatic factors of agricultural production: precipitation, temperature, and aridity.


The Impacts of Climate Change, A Comprehensive Study of Physical, Biophysical, Social, and Political Issues, 2021, Pages 537-545

This chapter supports SDGs 3, 16, and 13 by exploring the growing situation of “climate refugees," people displaced throughout the world because of extreme weather events or other climate change factors.

The Impacts of Climate Change, A Comprehensive Study of Physical, Biophysical, Social, and Political Issues, 2021, Pages 3-17

In this book, a few topics have been chosen to highlight the impacts of climate change on the physical and biophysical aspects of the planet. This introduction looks at the origins and the physics and chemistry of global warming and lets the science tell us just how serious a position our ecosystem and our society is in.

The Impacts of Climate Change, A Comprehensive Study of Physical, Biophysical, Social, and Political Issues, 2021, Pages 521-535

This book chapter addresses SDG 11 and 13 by explaining some of the ways that climate change impacts are evaluated in integrated assessment models (IAMs).

The Impacts of Climate Change, A Comprehensive Study of Physical, Biophysical, Social, and Political Issues, 2021, Pages 537-545

This book chapter addresses SDGs 10 and 13 by describing climate refugees. While the Paris agreement does not make direct reference to impact of climate change to refugees, it is estimated that over 200 million people will migrate to other locations because of climate change by 2050 so a task force must be established to assist and mitigate displacement.

Air Pollution, Climate, and Health, An Integrated Perspective on Their Interactions, 2021, Pages 3-12

Summarizes the documented health effects of climate change and air pollution, and the underlying linkage and interaction, as well as some issues that need to be addressed in future research and policy-making practice. Supports the SDG Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

Chris D. Jones, Chapter 4 - Numerical modeling of the global climate and carbon cycle system, Editor(s): Trevor M. Letcher, Climate Change (Third Edition), Elsevier, 2021, Pages 67-91

This chapter advances SDGs 13 and 15 by applying numerical modeling techniques to better understand the global climate and utilize observations to identify impacts of climate change on Earth.
This book chapter advances SDGs 13, 12 and 15 by discussing climate change and its causes and effects on water resources and implications for adaptation.
This chapter aligns with Goal 2: Zero Hunger, Goal 3: Good Health and Wellbeing, and Goal 13: Climate Action by exploring how extreme flooding has significant implications for local, regional, and national populations, particularly regarding agriculture and food supply.

Climate Change (Third Edition), Observed Impacts on Planet Earth, 2021, Pages 661-686

This book chapter addresses SDG 13 by explaining how to build a climate-resilient agriculture system.