Climate Change

Climate change, a global phenomenon characterized by alterations in weather patterns, rising global temperatures, and an increase in extreme weather events, poses a significant challenge to sustainable development and directly impacts the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs, a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed as a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all" by 2030, are intrinsically connected to climate action.

Central to this relationship is SDG 13: Climate Action, which calls for urgent measures to combat climate change and its impacts. This goal acknowledges that without immediate and sustained action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the achievement of other SDGs is at risk. Climate change exacerbates existing challenges such as poverty (SDG 1), hunger (SDG 2), and health issues (SDG 3) by disrupting livelihoods, food security, and health conditions. For instance, increased temperatures and changing precipitation patterns affect crop yields, leading to food insecurity. Similarly, the spread of diseases is influenced by climatic conditions, directly impacting public health.

Furthermore, climate change has a disproportionate impact on vulnerable populations, including those living in poverty, exacerbating inequalities (SDG 10). It affects access to clean water (SDG 6) and sanitation, with changing weather patterns disrupting water supply. The degradation of natural habitats and ecosystems under climate stress threatens life below water (SDG 14) and life on land (SDG 15), leading to biodiversity loss and affecting the livelihoods of those dependent on these ecosystems.

The economic impacts of climate change are also profound, affecting sustainable industrialization (SDG 9) and undermining economic growth (SDG 8). Severe weather events cause extensive damage to infrastructure and lead to economic losses, while changes in climatic conditions can impact industries such as agriculture, fishing, and tourism.

Moreover, climate change poses challenges to achieving sustainable cities and communities (SDG 11) as urban areas face increased risks of flooding, heatwaves, and air pollution. This necessitates the development of resilient infrastructure and adaptive urban planning. Additionally, the energy sector, integral to most economic activities, must transition towards clean and renewable sources (SDG 7) to mitigate climate change, highlighting the interdependence of the SDGs.

Global partnerships (SDG 17) are crucial in addressing climate change, as it is a global issue requiring international cooperation and funding. Developed countries are urged to support developing nations in climate mitigation and adaptation efforts, recognizing the shared responsibility and differing capacities among nations.


Air Pollution, Climate, and Health, An Integrated Perspective on Their Interactions, 2021, Pages 3-12

Summarizes the documented health effects of climate change and air pollution, and the underlying linkage and interaction, as well as some issues that need to be addressed in future research and policy-making practice. Supports the SDG Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

Chris D. Jones, Chapter 4 - Numerical modeling of the global climate and carbon cycle system, Editor(s): Trevor M. Letcher, Climate Change (Third Edition), Elsevier, 2021, Pages 67-91

This chapter advances SDGs 13 and 15 by applying numerical modeling techniques to better understand the global climate and utilize observations to identify impacts of climate change on Earth.
This book chapter advances SDGs 13, 12 and 15 by discussing climate change and its causes and effects on water resources and implications for adaptation.
This chapter aligns with Goal 2: Zero Hunger, Goal 3: Good Health and Wellbeing, and Goal 13: Climate Action by exploring how extreme flooding has significant implications for local, regional, and national populations, particularly regarding agriculture and food supply.

Climate Change (Third Edition), Observed Impacts on Planet Earth, 2021, Pages 661-686

This book chapter addresses SDG 13 by explaining how to build a climate-resilient agriculture system.
This chapter advances SDG 6 by presenting major challenges and opportunities concerning groundwater utilization and climate sustainability.

Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, Volume 41, February 2021

Increased levels of CO2 and various greenhouse gases cause global warming and, in combination with pollutants from fossil fuel combustion and vehicular and industrial emissions, have been driving increases in noncommunicable diseases across the globe, resulting a higher mortality and morbidity. Respiratory diseases and associated allergenic manifestations have increased worldwide, with rates higher in developing countries. Pollen allergy serves as a model for studying the relationship between air pollution and respiratory disorders.

An Editorial in support of SDGs 3, 9, and 13, focusing specifically on how to apply the lessons learned in public health during the COVID-19 pandemic to an equitable and sustainable recovery from the climate crisis.

Climate change is the most critical public health crisis of the 21st century. Physical and medical sequelae of climate and weather-related events are well documented and may be addressed in clinical practice. Mental health impacts of climate change are increasingly addressed in the literature but remain underrecognized by clinicians. This report focuses on mental health impacts of climate change through the theoretical framework of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

The COVID-19 pandemic and climate change are complex existential threats, unpredictable in many ways and unprecedented in modern times. There are parallels between the scale and scope of their impacts and responses. Understanding shared drivers, coupled vulnerabilities, and criteria for effective responses will help societies worldwide prepare for the simultaneous threats of climate change and future pandemics. We summarize some shared characteristics of COVID-19 and climate change impacts and interventions and discuss key policy implications and recommendations.