Health and population

Health and population dynamics are intertwined, embodying an intricate relationship with significant implications on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Health is fundamentally at the center of these 17 global goals, aimed to transform the world by 2030. Specifically, Goal 3 endeavors to "Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages." It acknowledges that health is pivotal to human life quality, social cohesion, and sustainable development. Inextricably linked to this are the complexities of population dynamics, including growth rates, age structure, fertility and mortality rates, and migration patterns.

With the world's population projected to exceed 9.7 billion by 2050, the pressure on health systems will undoubtedly escalate. The demographic transition, with an aging population and an increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases, poses new challenges for health systems globally. Additionally, areas with high fertility rates often overlap with extreme poverty, resulting in heightened health risks, including higher maternal and child mortality rates, malnutrition, and infectious diseases.

Moreover, rapid urbanization and migration present both opportunities and threats to health. While urban areas may provide better access to healthcare, they also harbor risks of disease transmission, air and water pollution, and social determinants of health like inadequate housing and social inequality. Simultaneously, migrants often face disproportionate health risks due to unstable living conditions, exploitation, and limited access to healthcare services.

Achieving the SDGs will necessitate comprehensive approaches that consider the intricate interplay of health and population dynamics. It means strengthening health systems, promoting universal health coverage, and addressing social determinants of health. It also implies crafting policies that recognize demographic realities and foster an environment conducive to sustainable development. Only by understanding and harnessing these dynamics can the world meaningfully progress towards realizing the SDGs, ensuring healthy lives and well-being for all.

This Article supports SDG 3 by examining cost-effectiveness of implementing the HITSystem, a web-based intervention designed to improve outcomes of infants exposed to HIV, in Kenya. The study finds that HITSystem is among the most cost-effective early infant diagnosis interventions reported to date; the the cost per infant exposed to HIV was US$31·38 and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for life-years saved was $82·72.
This Article supports SDG 3 by focusing on pregnant and postpartum women with HIV and assessing the risk factors for adverse postpartum outcomes and examining which factors can be addressed to support breastfeeding in resource-rich settings.
Choropleth map displaying HIV Prevalence spread across Nigeria.
Population-based surveys are expensive and time consuming. By determining state-level seropositivity using national testing service data and a Bayesian linear model, a map of HIV prevalence was generated across the whole of Nigeria. By identifying the areas in which HIV is most prevalent interventions can be targeted. This less resource intense Bayseian method allows for national monitoring of HIV prevalence.

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Volume 123, August 2023

Using brain tissue from donors with Alzheimer's disease, Anderson et al. identify new links between gene regulation and disease. These regulators could represent future clinical targets or disease markers for Alzheimer's diagnosis and treatment.

Adverse Childhood Experiences and their Life-Long Impact, 2023, Pages 207-242

This content aligns with Goal 3: Good Health as well as Goal 17: Partnership for the goals by reviewing the effects of trauma has on a child including psychological and biological.
This content aligns with Goal 3: Good Health and Wellbeing by discussing 310 tiglianes reported during 1967–2022, including the mechanisms of action of tiglianes against HIV and discusses the anti-HIV structure–activity relationship of certain tiglianes.
This content aligns with Goal 3: Good Health and Wellbeing by discussing the medical applications and limitations of five US Food and Drug Administration–approved INSTIs for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and preexposure prophylaxis for HIV-1.
Background: Over the past three decades, the prevalence of adolescent emotional problems (ie, anxiety and depression) has risen. Although the onset and developmental course of emotional symptoms shows high variability, no study has directly tested secular differences across development. Our aim was to investigate whether and how developmental trajectories of emotional problems have changed across generations.
Background: Few studies have evaluated postnatal depression before and during the Covid-19 pandemic using comparable data across time. We used data from three national maternity surveys in England to compare prevalence and risk factors for postnatal depression before and during the pandemic. Methods: Analysis was conducted using population-based surveys carried out in 2014 (n = 4571), 2018 (n = 4509), and 2020 (n = 4611). Weighted prevalence estimates for postnatal depression (EPDS score ≥13) were compared across surveys.
Background: The role of alcohol use in the development of depression is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether alcohol dependence, but not high frequency or quantity of consumption, during adolescence increased the risk of depression in young adulthood. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we included adolescents who were born to women recruited to the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in Avon, UK, with delivery dates between April 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 1992.