A third of the 2.5 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation live in India, as do two-thirds of the 1 billion practising open defecation and a quarter of the 1.5 million who die annually from diarrhoeal diseases. This study looked at the effectiveness of a rural sanitation intervention in India, providing insight into how to reach SDG 6.2 to achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and ending open defecation whilst paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.
Mortality Rate Ratios for seniors age 65 and older (MRR65+) by New York City Community District (n=59). The MRR65+ compares mortality rates during very hot days (maximum heat index=100 °F+) to all May through September days, 1997–2006.
The health impacts of exposure to summertime heat are a significant problem in New York City (NYC) and for many cities and are expected to increase with a warming climate. This article explores the connections between health in Goal 3 and climate change in Goal 13.
Elsevier,

Health & Place, Volume 29, September 2014, Pages 43-51

Building toilets and getting people to use them is critical for public health and delivering on goal 6. These authors deployed a political ecology approach specifically to identify the multi-scalar political, economic, and environmental factors influencing toilet adoption in rural India.
Elsevier,

The Lancet, Volume 386, Issue 9993, 8–14 August 2015, Pages 569-624

This article examines surgical and anaesthesia care in low-income and middle-income countries, which has stagnated and regressed. To prevent death and make progress towards goal 3 access to these surgical services must be available, affordable, timely and safe.
Urban green spaces provide critical ecosystems whilst also promoting physical activity, psychological well-being, and general public health benefits to urban residents. Reviewing the efforts to green US and Chinese cities provides useful guidance to assist the advancement of SDG target 3, 11 and 15 in promoting good health for all and building sustainable communities while creating and maintaining urban ecosystems.
The potential impact of dietary changes on health, the agricultural system and other environmental factors has only been studied to a limited extent. This study examines the large-scale consequences in the European Union of replacing 25–50% of animal-derived foods with plant-based foods on a dietary energy basis, assuming corresponding changes in production. It provides valuable insights to SDG target 2.3 to ensure sustainable food production systems by 2030, as well as SDG target 13.1 strengthening resilience and adapt to climate-related hazards.
Vaccine “hesitancy” is an emerging term in the literature and discourse on vaccine decision-making and determinants of vaccine acceptance. Determinants of vaccine hesitancy are complex and context-specific – varying across time, place and vaccines. By eliminating vaccine hesitancy SDG 3 will be met as it seeks to ensure health and well-being for all, at every stage of life.
A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. This article directly links to the SDG targets 3.1 and 3.2 to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births, and end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age.
Elsevier,

Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Volume 103, Issue 2, February 2014, Pages 137–149

Diabetes is a serious and increasing global health burden and estimates of prevalence are essential for appropriate allocation of resources and monitoring of trends. The SDG 3.4 target for 2030 is to reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being. This paper concludes that low and middle income countries will experience the greatest increase of diabetes over the next 22 years, highlighting inequalities in healthcare and nutritition.
Elsevier,

The Lancet Volume 383, Issue 9917, 15–21 February 2014, Pages 630-667

The Lancet–University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for Health examines health inequity and the conflict between the health sector with other powerful actors, such as protection of national security, safeguarding or sovereignty. This paper contributes to goal 3 and 5.

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