Biodiversity and ecosystems

Biodiversity and ecosystems are foundational to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). They are explicitly recognized in SDG 14 (Life Below Water) and SDG 15 (Life on Land), which aim to conserve and sustainably use aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Biodiversity and healthy ecosystems also support SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) by providing the variety of life that underpins agricultural productivity. They contribute to SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation) by providing essential water filtration services, and to SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being) by regulating disease and offering potential sources for medical discoveries. Moreover, these biological resources play a significant role in climate change mitigation and adaptation, linking to SDG 13 (Climate Action). Hence, the protection of biodiversity and ecosystems is essential to achieving multiple SDGs.

Mangrove-dominated estuaries host a diverse microbial assemblage that facilitates nutrient and carbon conversions and could play a vital role in maintaining ecosystem health. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene analysis, metabolic inference, nutrient concentrations, and δ13C and δ15N isotopes to evaluate the impact of land use change on near-shore biogeochemical cycles and microbial community structures within mangrove-dominated estuaries.


Geography and Sustainability, Volume 2, March 2021

This article supports SDG 15 by demonstrating both climate change and social-economic developments play important roles to wildlife recovery in Qingzang Plateau. How to effectively promote the wildlife restoration and conservation in Qingzang Plateau is challenging.
Mitigating global warming is the responsibility of all countries. Moreso, the role of forests in sequestrating carbon is very crucial. Most environmental organizations are active in protecting the environment according to their objectives. This paper investigates the relationship between institutional freedom and forest carbon sinks by using a panel threshold model with 139 countries to verify the U-shaped relationship between forest carbon sinks and economic development. The U-shaped curve between forest carbon sinks and economic development is the same as the environmental Kuznets curve.
Despite the importance of tropical forest conservation in achieving global sustainability goals and the key role of forest-risk commodity trade in driving deforestation, consumer country policy options for reducing imported deforestation have received limited scholarly attention. Drawing on gray literature and a European Commission public consultation, we identify 86 policy options for the European Union to address deforestation.

Antigoni Faka, Konstantinos Tserpes, Christos Chalkias, Chapter 10 - Environmental sensing: a review of approaches using GPS/GNSS, Editor(s): George p. Petropoulos, Prashant K. Srivastava, GPS and GNSS Technology in Geosciences, Elsevier, 2021, Pages 199-220, ISBN 9780128186176,

This chapter advances UN SDG goal 12 by enabling environmental assessment through remote sensing technologies
The results suggest that, although the role of reindeer herding in the economy of the Sámi communities varied greatly, the transition to reindeer herding may have affected ritual practices, testifying to a shared way of reciprocating with the land and animals.

Introduction to Forestry and Natural Resources, Second Edition, 2022.

This preface advances SDG 15 by providing an overview of the breadth and depth of this second edition, and the key insights it contains.
This book chapter advances SDG 15 by demonstrating the concept of designing mixed species native plantings (a type of semi-natural habitat) based on plant-insect interactions to increase abundance and diversity of non-bee and bee crop pollinators in an intensively managed agricultural landscape.
This book chapter advances SDGs 13, 14 and 15 by exploring “passive” mangrove restoration strategies as a preferred restoration in order to provide better opportunities for blue carbon abatement and increase resilience of coasts to rising sea levels and biodiversity loss.
As an important component of global change, plant invasion threaten the sustainability of global ecosystems and may alter the carbon dynamics in the invaded area. Knowledge of the effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks and their profile distribution is limited in coastal salt marshes, which are referred as important “blue carbon” ecosystems. A short-term invasion chronosequence of 2–10 years was used to evaluate the responses of SOC and SIC over the invasion period in the Yellow River Estuary, China.